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Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol. (updated 9-02-2020)

Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol. (updated 9-02-2020)

Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol (updated 9-02-2020)
Prophylaxis
While there is very limited data (and none specific for COVID-19), the following “cocktail” may
have a role in the prevention/mitigation of COVID-19 disease.
■ Vitamin C 500 mg BID and Quercetin 250-500 mg BID
■ Zinc 75-100 mg/day
■ Melatonin (slow release): Begin with 0.3mg and increase as tolerated to 2 mg
at night
■ Vitamin D3 1000-4000 u/day
■ Optional: Famotidine 20-40mg/day
Mildly Symptomatic patients (at home):
■ Vitamin C 500mg BID and Quercetin 250-500 mg BID
■ Zinc 75-100 mg/day
■ Melatonin 6-12 mg at night (the optimal dose is unknown)
■ Vitamin D3 2000-4000 u/day
■ Optional: Ivermectin 150-200ug/kg (single dose)
■ Optional: ASA 81/325mg/day
■ Optional: Famotidine 20-40mg/day
In symptomatic patients, monitoring with home pulse oximetry is recommended.
Ambulatory desaturation below 94% should prompt hospital admission
Mildly Symptomatic patients (on floor):
■ Vitamin C 500 mg PO q 6 hourly and Quercetin 250-500 mg BID (if available)
■ Zinc 75-100 mg/day
■ Melatonin 6-12 mg at night (the optimal dose is unknown)
■ Vitamin D3 2000-4000 u/day
■ Enoxaparin 60 mg daily
■ Famotidine 40mg daily (20mg in renal impairment)
■ Methylprednisolone 40 mg q 12 hourly; increase to 80 mg q 12 if poor response
■ Optional: Remdesivir 200mg D1 then 100mg daily for 9 days.
■ Optional: Ivermectin 150-200 ug/kg (single dose)
■ N/C 2L /min if required (max 4 L/min; consider early t/f to ICU for escalation of care).
■ T/f EARLY to the ICU for increasing respiratory signs/symptoms and arterial
desaturations.
General schema for respiratory support in patients with COVID-19
TRY TO AVOID INTUBATION IF POSSIBLE
Low-Flow Nasal Cannula
■ Typically set at 1-6 Liters/Min
High Flow Nasal Cannula
■ Accept permissive hypoxemia (O2 Saturation > 86%)
■ Titrate FiO2 based on patient’s saturation
■ Accept flow rates of 60 to 80 L/min
■ Trial of inhaled Flolan (epoprostenol)
■ Attempt proning (cooperative proning)
Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
■ Target tidal volumes of ~6 cc/kg
■ Lowest driving pressure and PEEP
■ Sedation to avoid self-extubation
■ Trial of inhaled Flolan
Prone Positioning
■ Exact indication for prone ventilation is unclear
■ Consider in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 150
SALVAGE THERAPIES
■ High dose corticosteroids; 120 -250 mg methylprednisolone q 6-8 hourly
■ Plasma exchange
■ “Half-dose” rTPA
■ Siltuximab and Tocilizumab (IL-6 inhibitors)
■ ?? ECMO < 60 yrs. and no severe comorbidities/organ failure
Deterioration
Recovery
continued on next page
Find the latest version at evms.edu/covidcare
Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol
(updated 6-17-2020)
Respiratory symptoms (SOB; hypoxia- requiring N/C ≥ 4 L min:
admit to ICU):
Essential Treatment (dampening the STORM)
1. Methylprednisolone 80 mg loading dose then 40 mg q 12 hourly for at
least 7 days and until transferred out of ICU. In patients with poor response,
increase to 80 mg q 12 hourly.
2. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) 3g IV q 6 hourly for at least 7 days and/or until
transferred out of ICU. Note caution with POC glucose testing.
3. Full anticoagulation: Unless contraindicated we suggest FULL
anticoagulation (on admission to the ICU) with enoxaparin, i.e 1 mg kg s/c
q 12 hourly (dose adjust with Cr Cl < 30mls/min). Heparin is suggested with
CrCl < 15 ml/min.
Note: Early termination of ascorbic acid and corticosteroids will likely result in a
rebound effect.
Additional Treatment Components (the Full Monty)
4. Melatonin 6-12 mg at night (the optimal dose is unknown).
5. Famotidine 40mg daily (20mg in renal impairment)
6. Vitamin D 2000-4000 u/day
7. Thiamine 200mg IV q 12 hourly
8. Simvastatin 80 mg/day (caution drug-drug interactions) or Atorvastatin
80mg/day
9. Magnesium: 2 g stat IV. Keep Mg between 2.0 and 2.4 mmol/l. Prevent
hypomagnesemia (which increases the cytokine storm and prolongs Qtc).
10. Optional: Azithromycin 500 mg day 1 then 250 mg for 4 days
11. Optional: Remdesivir, 200 mg IV loading dose D1, followed by 100mg day IV
for 9 days
12. Broad-spectrum antibiotics if superadded bacterial pneumonia is suspected
based on procalcitonin levels and resp. culture (no bronchoscopy).
13. Maintain EUVOLEMIA
14. Early norepinephrine for hypotension.
15. Escalation of respiratory support; See General Schema for Respiratory
Support in Patients with COVID-19.
Salvage Treatments
■ Plasma exchange. Should be considered in patients with progressive
oxygenation failure despite corticosteroid therapy. Patients may require
up to 5 exchanges.
■ High dose corticosteroids; 120 mg methylprednisolone q 6-8 hourly
■ Siltuximab and Tocilizumab (IL-6 inhibitors)
■ Convalescent serum; the role and timing of convalescent serum are
uncertain.
Treatment of Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS)
■ A sub-group of patients will develop MAS. A ferritin > 4400 ng/ml
is considered diagnostic of MAS. Other diagnostic features include
increasing AST/ALT and increasing CRP.
■ Methylprednisolone 120 mg q 6-8 hourly for at least 3 days, then wean
according to Ferritin, CRP, AST/ALT. Ferritin should decrease by at least
15% before weaning corticosteroids.
Monitoring:
■ On admission: PCT, CRP, IL-6, BNP, Troponins, Ferritin, NeutrophilLymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and Mg.
■ Daily: CRP, Ferritin, D-Dimer and PCT. CRP and Ferritin track disease
severity closely (although ferritin tends to lag behind CRP).
■ Thromboelastogram (TEG) in patients with high D-dimer and repeated as
indicated.
■ In patients receiving IV vitamin C, the Accu-Chek™ POC glucose monitor
will result in spuriously high blood glucose values. Therefore, a laboratory
glucose is recommended to confirm the blood glucose levels
Post ICU management
Find the latest version at evms.edu/covidcare Developed and updated by Paul Marik, MD, Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA

Marik-Covid-Protocol-Summary

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